Zimbabwe

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Zimbabwe's economy depends heavily on its mining and agriculture sectors. Following a decade of contraction from 1998 to 2008, the economy recorded real growth of more than 10% per year in 2010-13, before slowing to roughly 3% in 2014 due to poor harvests, low diamond revenues, and decreased investment. Infrastructure and regulatory deficiencies, a poor investment climate, a large public and external debt burden, and extremely high government wage expenses impede the country’s economic performance. Until early 2009, the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) routinely printed money to fund the budget deficit, causing hyperinflation. Dollarization in early 2009 - which allowed currencies such as the Botswana pula, the South Africa rand, and the US dollar to be used locally - ended hyperinflation and reduced inflation below 10% per year, but exposed structural weaknesses that inhibit broad-based growth. The RBZ introduced bond coins denominated in 1, 5, 10, and 25 cent increments on a par with the US dollar in December 2014, more than five years after the Zimbabwe dollar was taken out of circulation. In January 2015, as part of the government’s effort to boost trade and attract foreign investment, the RBZ announced that the Chinese renmimbi, Indian rupee, Australian dollar, and Japanese yen would be accepted as legal tender in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe’s government entered a second Staff Monitored Program with the International Monetary Fund in 2014 and undertook other measures to reengage with the international financial institutions. Foreign and domestic investment continues to be hindered by the lack of clarity regarding the government’s Indigenization and Economic Empowerment Act.

$27.13 billion (2014 est.)
$26.3 billion (2013 est.)
$25.17 billion (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2014 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 132
$13.67 billion (2014 est.)
3.2% (2014 est.)
4.5% (2013 est.)
10.6% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
$2,000 (2014 est.)
$2,000 (2013 est.)
$1,900 (2012 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
country comparison to the world: 203
household consumption: 68.7%
government consumption: 31.4%
investment in fixed capital: 22.4%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 68.5%
imports of goods and services: -90.9%
(2014 est.)
agriculture: 20.1%
industry: 25.7%
services: 54.2% (2014 est.)
27.2% of GDP (2014)
-6.4% of GDP (2014)
$3.263 billion (2014 est.) $3.144 billion (2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 129
$5.135 billion (2014 est.)
$4.571 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
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